the knee ligament has anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments.the extracapsular ligament on the medial side of the knee joint is the medial collateral ligament of the medial collateral ligament, the lateral collateral ligament is on the lateral side of the knee joint, and the posterior cruciate ligament is complex outside to reinforce the posterior lateral horn.posterior oblique ligament reinforced after the joint capsule.
the ligamentous capsular network formed by these ligaments constitutes the basic condition for maintaining the stability of the knee.limit the scope of activities of the knee, but also guide the knee in accordance with certain laws of exercise, which is called guidance.① limited role:whether the medullary nerve fibers within the ligament.ligament movement by tension, feeling by the nerve afferent, that is caused by reflex contraction of the corresponding muscles to limit knee activity, maintain joint stability, known as ligament muscle reflex.if the muscle control fails, then only the ligaments of the mechanical limitations.the limiting role of ligaments is synergistic, both with the muscle synergies, ligament combinations also synergy between.② guidance role:the cruciate ligament and the meniscus, the medial and lateral meniscus are ligament fibers are closely connected to form a"8"-shaped structure in the knee joint to jointly maintain the knee in the three the movement of each phase is stable, meanwhile the anterior cruciate ligament and the posterior cruciate ligament are crossed with each other.the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments cross each other and are located in the center of the joint.the anatomical features of the bony structure complement each other and the common joint guides the knee joint to move in a certain direction and with certain regularity.etiology and clinical manifestations of ligament injuries
injuries occur when the knee joint is subjected to violence and produces non-physiological activity, and the ligament is pulled beyond its tolerance.part of the ligament injury but did not cause dislocation tendency of those who called bruises, ligaments completely broken itself can also be part of the bone avulsion, forming a potential joint dislocation, subluxation or even complete dislocation.
often can lead to joint instability, exercise out of control.for local swelling and pain, tenderness or joint instability.pain, instability and advanced traumatic arthritis are the major consequences of ligament damage.the severity of the ligament rupture:
action beyond the range of motion of the joint is made, causing the ligament to be actively pulled causing tearing or completely broken.ligament rupture often accompanied by sprains and fractures.loss of joint stability.ligament contusion
generally because in the activity, to make the action beyond the scope of joint activity, ligament injury is not serious, there will be swelling.the stability of the joint is good.
acute phase treatment principle
1.actively carry out an early repair, so as not to cause early due to a reasonable treatment of advanced serious dysfunction.2, rest, stop exercising immediately, do not let the injured joint again weight.cold, ice or other cold can help reduce pain and swelling, because reducing the temperature can reduce blood circulation.each cold 15 to 20 minutes, three to four times a day.
4 oppression.bandage or other means to suppress the injured local can reduce bleeding, congestion.the tightness of the bandage should be moderate, can feel the pressure but will not make the end of the numb or ischemic.
5.the main purpose of raising the limbs, raising the limbs is to reduce swelling and promote blood reflux.the specific treatment is:
the knee joint is the largest and most complex body of the joints, the composition and role of ligaments are also more complex than the other joints.if the knee ligament injury is not properly treated department, people tend to emphasize that:the early diagnosis, early treatment, comprehensive repair.the basis of early treatment is the exact diagnosis, early treatment requirements are fully restored.otherwise, any remaining uncorrected ligament damage is a potentially destabilizing factor that eventually leads to late symptoms.a part of the damage may be directly repaired, while those with severe injury need to organize a metastasis repair with adjacent tendons and fascia.1, partial fracture:no intra-articular hemorrhage, ectopic x-ray showed that the medial joint space is not large, can do partial closure, elastic bandage bandage, early exercise quadriceps or use long legs on the ankle fixed knee 3-4 weeks, can begin quadriceps exercise and walking.2, completely broken:in principle, should be treated surgically, but in elderly patients such as no longer intensive physical therapy to conservative treatment based.3, old damage:actively insist on quadriceps exercise, in order to increase joint stability.after active training, the joint is still unstable and feasible surgical treatment.late collateral ligament injury is rare, rarely require surgery.4, anterior and posterior cruciate ligament tibial spine avulsion fractures of elderly patients, available knee hyperextension and push the tibia to reset, with long leg brace fixed 4-6 weeks.for those who failed to reset, should be timely surgical treatment.of old injuries, conservative treatment based.prevention of knee joint ligament injury to prevent daily life and sports injuries in the ligament, we must first be to avoid too drastic and difficult action.in addition, muscle strengthening exercises are important.because the stability of the joints in addition to the need for ligament protection, but also need to use powerful muscle strength to protect.when the muscles are strong, exercise will reduce the load on the ligaments, which will help reduce the chances of ligament damage.
last reminder of the elderly to avoid violent sports.